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        1. 暖通空调杂志社>期刊目次>2016年>第6期

          热环境对睡眠的影响

          Effects of thermal environment on sleep

          张宇峰
          华南理工大学亚热带建筑科学国家重点实验室

          摘要:

          通过对近50年研究文献的综述,系统梳理了热环境对睡眠影响的基本认识。寝具是热环境影响睡眠的重要因素,睡眠状态热中性温度与寝具总热阻成反比。寝具总热阻较小时,冷、热刺激均对睡眠有干扰,主要表现为觉醒时长增加,SWS(慢波睡眠)和REM(快速眼动)睡眠时长缩短,且冷刺激的干扰比热刺激强烈。通过被子和睡衣调整,睡眠质量可在较宽的低温范围内保持不变,对应的床气候热中性温度稳定。平均辐射温度和空气温度共同作用于床气候温度。高湿会进一步加强高温对睡眠的影响,气流可明显改善高温高湿下的睡眠质量。热刺激的影响集中在SWS为主的睡眠前半段,而冷刺激的影响集中在REM睡眠为主的睡眠后半段。小幅中性-冷变温可提高睡眠质量,小幅中性-热变温和大幅中性-热阶跃升温对睡眠无显著影响。通过热环境调节体核温度和皮肤温度对睡眠质量有一定影响。夏季比其他季节的睡眠质量差,较冷季节提高室内空气温度和平均辐射温度有助于睡眠,远端部位的皮肤温度与睡眠/清醒作息存在较好的对应关系。为进一步的研究提供了建议和方向。

          关键词:热环境,睡眠质量,快速眼动睡眠,慢波睡眠,寝具总热阻

          Abstract:

          Sorts out the basic understanding of the effects of thermal environment on sleep through literature review of the studies in the recent 50 years. The bedding system is a key factor and the thermal neutral temperature for sleeping person is negatively correlated with the total insulation of bedding system. Both cold and hot stimuli disturb sleep when the total insulation of bedding system is small, occurred as increasing wakefulness and decreasing SWS and REM, and cold stimuli are more disruptive to sleep than hot ones. The sleep quality can be maintained in a wide range of low temperature by adjusting quilt and sleepwear, and the thermal neutral temperature for bed climate keeps constant. The bed climate is influenced by both mean radiant temperature and air temperature. High humidity can strengthen the effects of high temperature on sleep. Airflow can significantly improve the sleep quality under hot-humid conditions. The effects of hot stimuli mainly occur in the first segment of sleep dominated by SWS, and the effects of cold stimuli occur in the second segment of sleep dominated by REM. The small change from neutral to cool improves sleep quality, and the small change from neutral to warm and the big step change from neutral to hot have no significant effect on sleep. Changing the core and skin temperatures by controlling thermal environment may have impacts on sleep quality. The sleep quality in summer is worse than other seasons. It is better to sleep to raise the air or mean radiant temperature in cold seasons. The distal skin temperature has a tight relationship with sleep/wake schedule. In the end, gives advices and directions for the future study.

          Keywords:thermalenvironment,sleepquality,rapideyemovement(REM)sleep,slowwavesleep(SWS),totalinsulationofbeddingsystem

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